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Monday, 14 November 2005
Chapter Nine Study Question Answers
1. Precedent – an act decisions that sets an example for others to follow.
2. State Department – Thomas Jefferson
Treasury Department – Alexander Hamilton
War Department – Henry Knox
Attorney General – Edmund Randolph
Postmaster General – Samuel Osgood
3. Judiciary Act – said that the Supreme Court should have a Chief Justice and 5 associate justices. It also set up a system of district courts and circuit courts. **John Jay – 1st Chief Justice**
4. - buy the government’s old bonds and issue new bonds
- He wanted the national government to pay off the state debts.
5. - He didn’t want speculators to be paid off in full for the bonds.
- Compromise – if the Southern States would agree with Hamilton’s plan that the National Government would pay off state’s debt, and then a new capital would be moved to the south.
* District of Columbia (new capital)
* Philadelphia (capital until new one was built)
6. Issue paper money, pay government bills, made loans to encourage new businesses
7. - Passed several taxes – the Tariff (tax on goods brought into the country)
- Tax on all liquor made and sold in the U.S. (result – Whiskey Rebellion – proved the U.S. government was strong).

8. At first, most Americans supported the French Revolution; they knew what it meant to fight for liberty.
9. Neutrality Proclamation – U.S. would not support either side in the war. Forbade Americans from taking any warlike actions against Britain or France.
10. Senate unhappy because Britain refused to make any promises about future attacks and the U.S. had to honor the Loyalists who lost property during the American Revolution.
11. Don’t worry about it
12. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson
13. Complete Chart
14. Thomas Jefferson – Democratic Republicans
Alexander Hamilton - Federalists
15. Newspapers kept people informed
Newspapers helped to shape public opinion
16. John Adams (Federalist) became Pres., Thomas Jefferson (Republican) became V.Pres., Person with most electoral votes became Pres., next highest amount of votes became V.Pres. **cannot happen now – Amendment 12**
17. George Washington; Henry Lee
18. Tallyrand sent 3 agents to meet with the Americans. The 3 agents asked for a bribe of $250,000 for Tallyrand and $10 million to France. Known as the XYZ Affair.
19. Strengthened our Navy
20. - Alien Act – allowed Pres. To expel any foreigner who was thought to be dangerous to the country
- 14 years for a male immigrant to become a citizen and vote
- Sedition Act – said that citizens could be fined and jailed if they criticized public officials
21. nullify or cancel them
22. Jefferson – Pres. (Republicans)
Burr – Vice Pres.

Adams – Pres. (Federalist)
Pickney – Vice Pres.
23. Tie between Jefferson and Burr (73 votes each)
House of Representatives voted on the tie
Jefferson – Pres. and Burr – Vice Pres.
24. John Adams kept us out of war with France. He helped out in the early years.

Posted by 7thghms at 9:22 AM CST
Sunday, 13 November 2005
Review Monday, Test Tuesday
Don't forget about the Chapter Nine test Tuesday...On Monday we will be going over the answers to the study guide which most of you should already have done...The answers were gonna be posted today this site but I have forgot them at the school but don't worry, you will get all the answers tomorrow.

Posted by 7thghms at 2:50 PM CST
Wednesday, 9 November 2005
Chapter Nine, Section Two Outline
A Policy of Neutrality

• Revolution in France
o Reasons the French revolted
 Peasants and middle class paid heavy taxes
• Nobles paid none
o Americans support the revolution
 Knew what it meant to struggle for liberty
 France had been first ally of the United States in the war against Great Britain
 Marquis de Lafayette – leading French reformer
• Fought with them in the Revolution
 1790’s – Revolution takes a violent turn
• Tens of thousands of French citizens executed when radical group took power
o Violence divides American opinion
 Some continued to support France
• Thomas Jefferson
o Condemned the killings of the king and queen
o Felt French had the right to use violence to win freedom
 Others disagreed
• Alexander Hamilton, John Adams, etc…
o Thought French Revolution was doomed to fail
o Believed democracy could not be created from violence
• Remaining Neutral
o Rulers felt the spread of revolutionary ideas in their own countries
o Britain, Spain, Prussia, Austria, and the Netherlands sent armies to overpower the revolutionaries in France
 War would last 20 years
o A difficult decision
 Washington had to form a foreign policy for the nation
• Actions and stands that a nation takes in relation to other nations
 Old treaty allowed French ships to use American ports, which they wanted to use to supply their ships and attack the British
• How could the United States honor their treaty and still remain neutral?
o Divisions in the Cabinet
 Hamilton stated that the treaty had been signed with Louis XVI
• Argued treaty no longer valid since the kind was dead
 Jefferson still supported the French and was suspicious of Hamilton, who wanted friendlier relations with Britain
 Neutrality Proclamation – The United States would not support either side in the war.
• Forbade Americans from aiding either Britain or France
• Viewed as a defeat for Jefferson, who would eventually leave the Cabinet
• An Unpopular Treaty
o American merchants wanted trade with both France and Britain
 They both ignored the rights of neutral ships, seizing cargo’s headed for each other’s ports
o 1793 – British captured 250 American ships trading in French West Indies
 Americans wanted war
 Washington knew America was to weak to fight
o John Jay was sent to Britain and worked out a treaty
 Britain would pay damages for American ships seized in 1793
 Americans had to pay debts to British merchants, owed from before the Revolution
 Britain agreed to give up forts it still held in the Ohio Valley
 Did not protect the rights of neutral American ships.
o Many protested Jay’s Treaty
 Felt they were giving up more than Britain was
 Senate approved the treaty in 1795
• Washington accepted it to avoid war
• Washington Retires
o 1796 – Washington’s Farewell Address
 Announced he would retire
 Urged the United States to remain neutral in its relations with other countries
 Avoid becoming involved in European affairs
• Felt alliances would pull the United States into war
o Advice would guide American foreign policy for many years

Posted by 7thghms at 7:50 AM CST
Monday, 7 November 2005
Chapter Nine, Section One Outline
Chapter Nine, Section One
Launching the New Government

• The New Government
o George Washington
 Inaugurated in NYC on April 30, 1789
• Ceremony at which the President officially takes the oath of office.
 Americans were looking at him to make their new government.
o Constitution did no explain how the President should govern from day to day.
 George Washington – “There is scarcely any part of my conduct which may not hereafter be drawn into precedent.”
• Precedent – an act or decision that sets an example for others to follow.
o 1796 – Washington decided not to run for a third term.
o The first Cabinet
 President needed talented people to help him carry out his duties.
 1789 – 1st Congress created five executive departments.
• Departments of:
o State
o Treasury
o War
• Offices of:
o The Attorney General
o The Postmaster General
• Heads of these departments made up the President’s Cabinet.
o Gave advice and directed their departments.
 Washington choose well-known leaders to serve in his Cabinet
• Secretary of State – Thomas Jefferson
• Secretary of the Treasury – Alexander Hamilton
o The federal court system
 Congress had to organize the federal court system.
• 1789 – Judiciary Act
o Called for the Supreme Court to have one Chief Justice and five Associate Justices.
 Today there are 8 Associate Judges.
 John Jay – 1st Chief Justice of the United States
o Set up a system of district courts and circuit courts across the nation.
 Decisions made here could be appealed to the Supreme Court.
• Battling the National Debt
o Alexander Hamilton wanted to create a strong economy.
 Large national debt.
• National Debt – Total sum of money a government owes to others.
• During Revolution, money was borrowed from foreign countries to pay for soldiers and supplies.
• Governments borrowed money by issuing bonds.
o Bond – a certificate which promises to repay the money loaned plus interest on a certain date.
• 1789 – Most southern states had paid off their debts, but other states and the federal government had not.
• Who would lend money to the U.S. in the future if the country did not pay its old debt?
• Hamilton’s Plan
o 2 parts:
 Buy up all the bonds issued by the national and state governments before 1789.
• Planned to sell new bonds to pay off those old debts.
o When the economy improved, the government would be able to pay off the new bonds.
 Wanted the national government to pay off debts owed by the states.
o Madison leads the opposition
 Argued the plan was unfair because it would reward speculators.
• Speculator – someone willing to invest in a risky venture in the hope of making a large profit.
• Bondholders sold bonds to speculators, who paid only 10 or 15 cents for bonds that had an original value of one dollar.
• If government paid bonds back at their original values, speculators stood to make a fortune.
• Hamilton argued the U.S. had to repay its bonds in full in order to gain the trust and help of investors.
o Crucial for building the new nation’s economy.
• Hamilton convinced Congress to accept his plan of repaying the national debt.
 Madison also argued that since all southern states had paid their debt in full, the other states should do the same.
o Hamilton’s compromise
 Offered to persuade his northern friends to vote for a capital in the South if southerners supported the repayment of state debts.
 July 1790 – Congress passed bills taking over state debts and providing for a new capital city.
 Capital would not be part of any state.
• Built on land along the Potomac River between Virginia and Maryland
• Known as the District of Columbia (Washington, D.C.)
• Until the new capital was ready, the nation’s capital was moved from NYC to Philadelphia .
• Building Up the Economy
o A national bank
 1791 – Bank of the United States was created by Congress
• Money collected from taxes was deposited here.
• In turn, the Bank issued paper money.
o Used to make loans to farmers and businesses.
• Encouraged the growth of the economy.
• Paper money also used to pay government bills.
o Pay employees, build the new capital, and keep up the army and navy.
o Protecting American industry
 Proposed that Congress pass a tariff, or tax, on all foreign goods brought into the country.
• Hamilton called for a very high tariff.
o Imported goods would be higher than those made in America.
• Protective tariff – meant to protect American industry from foreign competition.
 Many in the North supported the tariff, but Southerners, who bought more imported goods, did not.
 Congress passed the tariff bill, but with the purpose to raise money for operating the government.
• Lower than the protective tariff that Hamilton supported.
• The Whiskey Rebellion
o Bill was passed the taxed all liquor made and sold in the U.S.
 Hamilton wanted the tax to help raise money for the Treasury.
o The hated tax
 Farmers in the backcountry grew corn.
• Bulky to haul over rough backcountry roads, so they converted it into whiskey.
o Could easily ship in barrels to markets in the East.
• Protested the tax and many refused to pay it.
 1794 – Officials in western PA tried to collect the tax.
• Farmers rebelled and soon thousands were marching through Pittsburg.
o A show of strength
 Washington sent the militia to PA.
• Rebels scattered when they heard 15,000 troops were marching against them.
 Whiskey Rebellion – critical test of the strength of the new government.
• Showed violence would not be tolerated.
• Proved to Americans that their new government would act firmly in times of crisis.

Posted by 7thghms at 9:37 AM CST
Chapter Nine Vocabulary and Chapter Tests
We will have a test on chapter nine vocabulary words on Friday, Novemeber 11, and the Chapter test for chapter nine will be on Monday, November 14.

Posted by 7thghms at 9:36 AM CST
Friday, 28 October 2005
Monday Test
It is VERY important that the students bring their completed outlines and study guide to class with them Monday for their test. If they do not have one or cannot find it, please send me a note so I can make sure they get one before the test.

Posted by 7thghms at 9:03 AM CDT
Wednesday, 26 October 2005
Answers, Chapter 7 & 8 Study Guide
1. a. would clearly tell the rights of all citizens
b. would limit the power of government

2. list of the freedoms the government has to protect

3. a. Each state had one vote in Congress
b. Gave Congress the power to declare war
c. States had the final authority
d. Although Congress could pass laws, at least 9 of the 13 states had to approve a law
e. Congress could not regulate trade between states and foreign countries
f. Congress could not pass any laws regarding taxes
g. To get money - Congress had to ask each state for it
h. No state could be forced to pay

4. Land Ordinance of 1785 called for the land to be surveyed and divided into townships. 36 sections & 1 township set up to support public school

Northwest Ordinance - set up government in NW Territory and outlawed slavery.
*Important b/c it was a way new states would be admitted to the U.S.

5. economic depression - period when business activity slows, prices and wages fall, and unemployment rises

6. Ben Franklin, George Washington (President Cont. Congress), Alexander Hamilton, James Madison

7. wanted to be able to freely speak their minds w/o pressure from the outside

8. Virginia Plan - calles for a strong national government and 3 branches:
1. Legislative: passes laws
2. Executive: carries out the laws
3. Judicial: System of courts
2 houses - Senate and House of Representatives

New Jersey Plan: called for a one house legislature - Each state would have one vote no matter what the population

9. Great Compromise:
House of Rep. - choosen by all men who could vote. Decided by population.
Senate - Each state would have 2 senators

10. 3/5 Compromise - 3/5 of the slaves in a state would be counted towards population.

11. Republic - nation in which the voters elect representatives to govern them
Federalism - sharing of power between the states and the national government

12. Chart:
List 3 - powers to National Gov.
List 3 - powers to State Gov.
List 3 - powers shared
(pg 200)

13. System of which each branch of government has its own powers

14. Executive Branch - President
Legislative Branch - Congress
Judicial Branch - Supreme Court & other Federal Judges
*Look at chart and write down 2 facts about each branch (pg. 202)

15. Electoral College - votes for the President and Vice-president of the U.S.
Electoral College was made up of the House of Rep. & the Senators of each state.*

16. Checks and Balances - under this system - each branch of the Federal gov. has some way to check, or control, the other 2 branches.
*System of Checks & Balances is another way that the Constitution limits the power of government*

17. See Chart (p. 227) - How a Bill becomes Law

18. See Chart (p. 220) - Giver 3 checks that Congress has on the President

19. See p. 205

20. George Washington - President
John Adams - Vice President

21. (p. 223)
a. 2/3 of both houses of Congress cna vote to propose an amendment
b. or 2/3 of states can propose
c. next step, 3/4 of states must vote for the amendment
*In 200 years, only 27 amdendments have been adopted*

22. 27

23. James Madison

24. Basic Rights (1-10) (p. 215)

25. Due Process

Posted by 7thghms at 9:22 AM CDT
Tuesday, 25 October 2005
Chapters 7-8 Test
Students will test on Chapters 7 and 8 on Monday, October 31st. The students have recieved and completed outlines on chapter seven and are completing outlines for chapter eight this week. We will also be reviewing a study guide every day in class. Students should keep up with their outlines and study guides for the test on Monday and should be looking over what they have already recieved every night.

Posted by 7thghms at 8:56 PM CDT
Tuesday, 18 October 2005
Test Friday on 1st 10 Amendments to the Constitution
Students recieved a sheet on Monday with the 1st 10 Amendments on it. There will be a short quiz on Friday of these Amendments. The quiz will be matching so the students just need to study their sheets. If they lose their sheets, the Amendments are also listed in the back of their textbooks.

Posted by 7thghms at 7:06 AM CDT
Sunday, 9 October 2005
Vocabulary/Study Guide
Students will be recieving vocabulary words and study questions today for chapter seven. Students should define all vocabulary words given for a test on Friday. I hope to be able to give the test for Chapter Seven on Wednesday of next week, which would be the 19th but that is subject to change, but students should go ahead and be looking over the study questions for Chapter Seven as soon as they recieve them though to help prepare themselves. The more they know from the start of the chapter, the less they will have to study over the night before the test.

Posted by 7thghms at 10:30 PM CDT

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